“They report feeling comforted by their objects, being frightened by the idea of losing an object and seeing the objects as core to their sense of self and identity. They hold a deep sense of responsibility for taking care of those objects and are likely to resent it if others touch, borrow, or remove them (Frost, Steketee, & Tolin 2012). These attachments may be even stronger when animals are involved. People who hoard animals often describe their animals as their closest confidants (Patronek & Nathanson, 2009)” Abnormal psychology textbook page 251.

UTHP Analysis – ownership over the safety of their possessions but also have a scematic map that says the world is dangerous and they need to protect their things (or their things need to protect them).


Frost, R. O., Steketee, G., & Tolin, D. F. (2012). Diagnosis and assessment of hoarding disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 219–242. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143116